This is done as a resource to simply list different sales of Leadership
Taken From http://www.asaecenter.org/Resources/ANowDetail.cfm?ItemNumber=2419621. Charismatic
The Icon: Oprah Winfrey
Known all over the word by her first name alone, picks a book to read and makes it a bestseller overnight, runs her own television network, and has more than 14 million Twitter followers. Her word can move the stock market and social issues for the better.
Influences others through power of personality
Acts energetically, motivating others to move forward
May seem to believe more in self than in the team
When to Use It
To spur others to action
To expand an organization’s position in the marketplace
To raise team morale
Impact on Others
Can create risk that a project or group will flounder if leader leaves
Leader’s feeling of invincibility can ruin a team by taking on too much risk
Team success seen as directly connected to the leader’s presence
The Icon: Richard Branson
Launched his first business at 16, founder of Virgin Group, comprising more than 400 companies in fields ranging from music to space tourism. He recently described his philosophy to Inc. magazine: “Dream big by setting yourself seemingly impossible challenges. You then have to catch up with them.”
Grasps the entire situation and goes beyond the usual course of action
Can see what is not working and brings new thinking and action into play
When to Use It
To break open entrenched, intractable issues
To create a work climate for others to apply innovative thinking to solve problems, develop new products and services
Impact on Others
Risk taking is increased for all
Failures don’t impede progress
Team gains job satisfaction and enjoyment
Atmosphere of respect for others’ ideas is present
Leadership in Action
“My best leadership moments have all occurred when I realized I did not have to lead anymore. Leadership is not always about being in front. Sometimes, it is about being comfortable enough in your skin to lead from the rear and let others shine.”—Velma Hart, FASAE, CAE, chief financial officer, Thurgood Marshall College Fund
“The best leadership moments are the ones that I don’t know about. They happen when someone on the staff or volunteer team makes the right decision that solves a problem, or delights a member, or inspires an idea, or advances our mission. The ultimate measure of a leader is what happens in your absence.”—Gary A. LaBranche, FASAE, CAE, president and CEO, Association for Corporate Growth
“What comes naturally to me is the desire to connect ideas, experiences, stories, efforts, and people. Sharing relevant information at opportune times in ways that enhance outcomes is energizing. Communication skills, timing, including all stakeholders, and ego-free interactions are keys to successful leadership.”—Susan Gorin, CAE, executive director, National Association of School Psychologists
3. Command and Control
The Icon: Tom Coughlin
Controversial head coach of the New York Giants, a stern taskmaster and disciplinarian who learned to adapt his leadership style to improve his relationships with his team but never lost sight of his goal: winning Super Bowls.
Follows the rules and expects others to do the same
When to Use It
In situations of real urgency with no time for discussion
When safety is at stake
In critical situations involving financial, legal, or HR issues
In meeting inflexible deadlines
Demands immediate compliance
Engages in top-down interactions
Is the sole decision maker
Impact on Others
If used too much, feels restrictive and limits others’ ability to develop their own leadership skills
Others have little chance to debrief what was learned before next encounter with leader
The Icon: Donna Karan
Founder of DKNY, built an international fashion empire based on wide appeal to both women and men. Although she has spent less time creating her own designs since 2002, her vision lives on in the work of other designers, inspired by her leadership.
Knows what is happening but not directly involved in it
Trusts others to keep their word
Monitors performance, gives feedback regularly
When to Use It
When the team is working in multiple locations or remotely
When a project, under multiple leaders, must come together by a specific date
To get quick results from a highly cohesive team
Impact on Others
Effective when team is skilled, experienced, and self-directed in use of time and resources
Autonomy of team members leads to high job satisfaction and increased productivity
5. Pace Setter
The Icon: Jeff Bezos
Founder of Amazon, set the pace for the boom in e-commerce by creating a transactional interface that every other online merchant copied—the same people who are now following him to the cloud.
Sets high performance standards for self and the group
Epitomizes the behavior sought from others
When to Use It
When staff are self-motivated and highly skilled, able to embrace new projects and move with speed
When action is key and results are critical
Impact on Others
Cannot be sustained too long, as staff may “burn out” from demanding pace
Results delivered at a speed staff can’t always keep up with
The Icon: Herb Kelleher
Cofounder and former CEO of Southwest Airlines, famously said “the business of business is people” and created a company culture that reflects that philosophy. He once took an interior office with no windows rather than encourage the traditional view of an office as a status symbol.
Puts service to others before self-interest
Includes the whole team in decision making
Provides tools to get the job done
Stays out of limelight, lets team accept credit for results
When to Use It
When leader is elected to a team, organization, committee, or community
When anyone, at any level of the group, meets the needs of the team
Impact on Others
Organizations with these leaders often seen on “best places to work” list
Can create a positive culture and lead to high morale
Ill-suited if situation calls for quick decisions or meeting tight deadlines
The Icon: Pat Summitt
Former head coach of the University of Tennessee women’s basketball team, holds the record as the all-time winningest coach in NCAA history. Even as new players joined her team each year, she maintained a winning record (more than 1,000 victories and eight national championships over 38 years) by adapting her coaching to her young players’ skills and needs.
Links behavior with group’s readiness
Includes being directing and supportive, while empowering and coaching
When to Use It
Where ongoing procedures need refinement, reinvention, or retirement
Impact on Others
Can be confusing if behavior changes unpredictably and too often
Can reduce uncertainty as leader adapts behavior appropriately
The Icons: Ben Cohen and Jerry Greenfield
Turned a $12,000 investment and a correspondence course on ice cream making into a beloved international treat. They adopted a radical business philosophy dedicated to social responsibility and created a business model that allowed members of their customer community to become stockholders.
Expects team to transform even when it’s uncomfortable
Counts on everyone giving their best
Serves as a role model for all involved
When to Use It
To encourage the group to pursue innovative and creative ideas and actions
To motivate the group by strengthening team optimism, enthusiasm, and commitment
Impact on Others
Can lead to high productivity and engagement from all team members
Team needs detailed-oriented people to ensure scheduled work is done
Rhea Blanken, FASAE, is president of Results Technology, Inc., in Bethesda, Maryland. Email: email@example.com
“Strengthen Your Executive Presence,” by Carol Vernon, Associations Now, September/October 2012
“The Truth as a Leadership Imperative,” by Jamie Notter, Associations Now, June 2010
“Transformative Leadership at the Miami Lighthouse for the Blind,” by Doug Eadie and Virginia Jacko, Associations Now, February 2010
This below referenced story and article is taken from
https://www.legacee.com/types-of-leadership-styles/TYPES OF LEADERSHIP STYLES
LeadStylesCivilization Types of Leadership Styles
Image Source: Wikimedia Commons by Traitor
“The best way to have a good idea, is to have a lot of ideas.” — Dr. Linus Pauling (Two times winner of the Nobel Prize).
by Murray Johannsen. (March 9, 2014). Feel free to connect with the author by Linkedin, Google+ or by email.
This article lists 20 different leadership styles. With each style is a short definition designed to highlight the essential makeup of each leadership style.
When developing your leadership skills, you must soon ask yourself, “What leadership style work best for me and my organization?” To answer this question, it’s best to understand that there are many from which to choose and as part of your leadership development effort, you should consider developing as many leadership styles as possible.
In fact, choosing the right style, at the right time in the right situation is a key element of leader effectiveness. That’s not what most people do—they have one style used in many situations. It’s like having only one suit or one dress, something you wear everywhere. Of course, all of us would agree that having only one set of clothes is ridiculous. But then, so is having only one leadership style.
Some styles overlap (i.e. charisma and transformational); some can be used together (facilitative and team leadership); others are used less frequently (strategic and cross-cultural); and some are polar opposites (autocratic & participative). Below is a detailed description of all these styles.
Twenty Leadership Styles
1. The Autocratic Leadership Style
640px Driemaal Napoleon met zijn keter Types of Leadership Styles
David and Ingres, before 1815: Portraits of Napoleon I. Notice the symbols of authority in each portrait.
One leadership style dimension has to do with control and one’s perception of how much control one should give to others. For example, the laissez faire style implies low control, the autocratic style requires high control while the participative one lies somewhere in between. Kurt Lewin (1939) called these styles: authoritative, participative (democratic) or delegative (Laissez Faire).
Take an on-line Quiz on these Leadership Styles
Partly, your style choice on the control dimension is a matter of personal choice. The style has its advocates, but it is falling out of favor due to the many weaknesses of autocratic leadership. Some people have argued that the style is popular with today’s CEO’s, who have much in common with the feudal lords of Medieval Europe.
2. Bureaucratic Leadership
An autocrat doesn’t require a bureaucracy, but the autocrat and the bureaucracy goes together like a hand and glove. One reason has be do with obedience to authority. In fact, one can make an argument that in large groups such as the multinational corporations and government agencies authority is the most common type of influence used.
3. The Coaching Style
“A groom used to spend whole days in currycombing and rubbing down his Horse, but at the same time stole his oats and sold them for his own profit. “Alas!” said the Horse, “if you really wish me to be in good condition, you should groom me less, and feed me more.” — Aesop’s Fables.
A great coach is definitely a leader who also possess a unique gifts ability to teach and train.They groom people to improve both knowledge and skill.
4. Cross-Cultural Leadership
Not all individuals can adapt to the leadership styles expected in a different culture whether that culture is organizational or national. In fact, there is some evidence that American and Asian Leadership Styles are very different, primarily due to cultural factors.
5. Emergent Leadership
“The superior man understands what is right; the inferior man understands what will sell.” – Confucius
Contrary to the belief of many, groups don’t automatically accept a new “boss” as leader. Emergent leadership is what you must do when one taking over a new group.
6. The Leader Exchange Style
Sometimes known as leader-member exchange, the style involves the exchange of favors between two individuals. An exchange can be hierarchical between the boss and subordinate or occur between two individuals of equal status. For this leadership style to work, you need to know how to develop, maintain and repair relationships.
7. The Laissez Faire Leadership Style
The style is largely a “hands off” view that tends to minimize the amount of direction and face time required. Works well if you have highly trained, highly motivated direct reports.
8. Situational Leadership
In the 1950s, management theorists from Ohio State University and the University of Michigan published a series of studies to determine whether leaders should be more task or relationship (people) oriented. The importance of the research cannot be over estimated since leaders tend to have a dominant style; a leadership style they use in a wide variety of situations.
Surprisingly, the research discovered that there is no one best style: leaders must adjust their leadership style to the situation as well as to the people being led. Hershey and Blanchard’s Model of Situational Leadership. Going back to the 1970s, the model primarily focuses on the nature of the task as the major variable in choosing your style. In this model, there are four options: telling, selling, participating and delegating.
9. Strategic Leadership
This is practiced by the military services such as the US Army, US Air Force, and many large corporations. It stresses the competitive nature of running an organization and being able to out fox and out wit the competition.
10. Team Leadership
A few years ago, a large corporation decided that supervisors were no longer needed and those in charge were suddenly made “team leaders.” Today, companies have gotten smarter about how to exert effective team leadership, but it still takes leadership to transition a group into a team.
11. Facilitative Leadership
This is a special style that anyone who runs a meeting can employ. Rather than being directive, one using the facilitative leadership style uses a number of indirect communication patterns to help the group reach consensus.
12. Influence Leadership Styles
9 Spheres of Influence Types of Leadership Styles
Legacee’s Nine Spheres Model: The Elements of Social Influence
Here one looks at the behaviors associated how one exercises influence. For example, does the person mostly punish? Do they know how to reward?
13. The Participative Leadership Style
It’s hard to order and demand someone to be creative, perform as a team, solve complex problems, improve quality, and provide outstanding customer service. The participative style presents a happy medium between over controlling (micromanaging) and not being engaged and tends to be seen in organizations that must innovate to prosper.
14. The Servant Leadership Style
“The Roots Of Our Problems Are: Wealth Without Work, Pleasure Without Conscience, Knowledge Without Character, Commerce Without Morality, Science Without Humanity, Worship Without Sacrifice, Politics Without Principles.” – Mohandas K. Gandhi
Some leaders have put the needs of their followers first. For example, the motto of the Los Angeles Police Department, “To Protect and Serve.” reflects this philosophy of service. But one suspects servant leadership are relatively rare in business. It’s hard to imagine a CEO who puts the needs of employees first before the needs of the stockholders and the bankers.
Since transformational leaders to take their followers into the light or into the darkness, its helpful to have a set of values that uplift, rather than destroy. One such set of values known as servant leadership. While this leadership style has been around for thousands of years, the American Robert Greenleaf coined the term servant leader in 1970 in his book The Servant as Leader.
This style rests on a set of assumptions (Greenleaf, 1983). In this case, it is not the leader who benefits most, it is the followers. We have leaders not acting selfishly, but socially. A second aspect to this is an orientation toward service with a primary orientation toward using moral authority. Finally, the approach emphasizes certain positive values such as trust, honestly, fairness and so on.
15. The Transformational Leadership Style
“Nothing so needs reforming as other people’s habits” – Mark Twain
The primary focus of the transformational leadership style is to make change happen in:
The transformational style requires a number of different skills and is closely associated with two other leadership styles: charismatic and visionary leadership.
16. The Charismatic Style
Charisma Types of Leadership Styles
“Throw away those books and cassettes on inspirational leadership. Send those consultants packing. Know your job, set a good example for the people under you and put results over politics. That’s all the charisma you’ll really need to succeed.” — Dyan Machan.
Do You Need Charisma? So do you need the charismatic leadership style? The answer is no. One can be a small cog in the great machine. However, it you want to be a leader, if you want to have followers, if you want to do anything great, you better have it. Transformational leaders need a bit of charisma. But if you are in a large bureaucratic organization, you can use your authority and the power associated with the position. Indeed, most people in large organizations lack charisma.
17. The Visionary Leadership Style
American progress Types of Leadership Styles
A symbol of the concept of Manifest Destiny—a strong held national belief (at the time) that opportunity lay on the West coast—primarily to California. It become a vision for many.
Visionary leaders often are able to capture the yearnings of the in statements such as the example below:
“Washington Is Not A Place To Live In. The Rents Are High, The Food Is Bad, The Dust Is Disgusting And The Morals Are Deplorable. Go West, Young Man, Go West And Grow Up With The Country.” — July 1865, Horace Greely Concerning America’s Expansion To The West.
The “vision thing” is something all great leaders have. It was seen through out history in the great ones. For example, Alexander the Great clearly had a vision of how to make an empire work. Visionary leadership has many different elements to it.
It’s surprising how few leaders really have a clear view of what is happening socially or economically in their industry, nation or globally. In one respect, you might say they are blind. Leaders need a vision, but great leadership turns that vision into reality. So remember:
“If the blind shall lead the blind, both with fall into the ditch.” — The Bible, Matthew 15:14
18. Transactional Leadership
The approach emphasizes getting things done within the umbrella of the status quo; almost in opposition to the goals of the transformational leadership. It’s considered to be a “by the book” approach in which the person works within the rules. As such, it’s more commonly seen in large, bureaucratic organizations where political considerations are part of daily life.
19. Level 5 Leadership
This term was coined by Jim Collins in his book Good to Great: Why Some Company’s Make the Leap and Other Don’t. As Collins says in his book, “We were surprised, shocked really, to discover the types of leadership required for turning a good company into a great one.” What he seems to have found is what The Economist calls, “The Cult of the Faceless Boss.”
20. Primal Leadership Style
It would seem that just when you have it all sorted out, someone invents a new set of labels. Goleman’s model of leadership is a relatively recent addition to the pantheon of leadership style. In this case, it is Danel Goleman. A psychologist who can write in more scholar English, he was one of the major people who popularized Emotional Intelligence and then followed it up with a book called “Primal Leadership. Worth taking a look at. It’s based on the application of emotional intelligence to leadership. The six leadership styles one can use are:
Profiles In Leadership
This section will contain videos about the leadership styles of business and government leaders.
Video 1: Some have said that one only needs good management to run a successful business organization. In what areas do leaders make a difference? This video talks about the importance of leadership using different examples ranging from student organizations to three historical examples: Japan, China and Britain and three leaders who had such an immense impact on those nations: Emperor Meiji, The Dowager Empress Ci Xi and Elisabeth I.
Video 2: Ben Bernanke and Henry Paulson. The two men have widely differing leadership styles but have been thrust together by historical chance in dealing with the 2008 Wall Street financial crisis.
“Any one can hold the helm when the sea is calm.” – Publilius Syrus.
“Our knowledge can only be finite, while our ignorance must necessarily be infinite.” — Karl Popper, Austrian philosopher
Lewin, K., Lippit, R. and White, R.K. (1939). Patterns of aggressive behavior in experimentally created social climates. Journal of Social Psychology, 10, 271-301
Fast Company Article: http://www.fastcompany.com/1838481/6-leadership-styles-and-when-you-should-use-them
6 LEADERSHIP STYLES, AND WHEN YOU SHOULD USE THEM
BY ROBYN BENINCASA
Taking a team from ordinary to extraordinary means understanding and embracing the difference between management and leadership. According to writer and consultant Peter Drucker, “Management is doing things right; leadership is doing the right things.”
Manager and leader are two completely different roles, although we often use the terms interchangeably. Managers are facilitators of their team members’ success. They ensure that their people have everything they need to be productive and successful; that they’re well trained, happy and have minimal roadblocks in their path; that they’re being groomed for the next level; that they are recognized for great performance and coached through their challenges.
Conversely, a leader can be anyone on the team who has a particular talent, who is creatively thinking out of the box and has a great idea, who has experience in a certain aspect of the business or project that can prove useful to the manager and the team. A leader leads based on strengths, not titles.
The best managers consistently allow different leaders to emerge and inspire their teammates (and themselves!) to the next level.
When you’re dealing with ongoing challenges and changes, and you’re in uncharted territory with no means of knowing what comes next, no one can be expected to have all the answers or rule the team with an iron fist based solely on the title on their business card. It just doesn’t work for day-to-day operations. Sometimes a project is a long series of obstacles and opportunities coming at you at high speed, and you need every ounce of your collective hearts and minds and skill sets to get through it.
This is why the military style of top-down leadership is never effective in the fast-paced world of adventure racing or, for that matter, our daily lives (which is really one big, long adventure, hopefully!). I truly believe in Tom Peters’s observation that the best leaders don’t create followers; they create more leaders. When we share leadership, we’re all a heck of a lot smarter, more nimble and more capable in the long run, especially when that long run is fraught with unknown and unforeseen challenges.
Change leadership styles
Not only do the greatest teammates allow different leaders to consistently emerge based on their strengths, but also they realize that leadership can and should be situational, depending on the needs of the team. Sometimes a teammate needs a warm hug. Sometimes the team needs a visionary, a new style of coaching, someone to lead the way or even, on occasion, a kick in the bike shorts. For that reason, great leaders choose their leadership style like a golfer chooses his or her club, with a calculated analysis of the matter at hand, the end goal and the best tool for the job.
My favorite study on the subject of kinetic leadership is Daniel Goleman’s Leadership That Gets Results, a landmark 2000 Harvard Business Review study. Goleman and his team completed a three-year study with over 3,000 middle-level managers. Their goal was to uncover specific leadership behaviors and determine their effect on the corporate climate and each leadership style’s effect on bottom-line profitability.
The research discovered that a manager’s leadership style was responsible for 30% of the company’s bottom-line profitability! That’s far too much to ignore. Imagine how much money and effort a company spends on new processes, efficiencies, and cost-cutting methods in an effort to add even one percent to bottom-line profitability, and compare that to simply inspiring managers to be more kinetic with their leadership styles. It’s a no-brainer.
Here are the six leadership styles Goleman uncovered among the managers he studied, as well as a brief analysis of the effects of each style on the corporate climate:
1) The pacesetting leader expects and models excellence and self-direction. If this style were summed up in one phrase, it would be “Do as I do, now.” The pacesetting style works best when the team is already motivated and skilled, and the leader needs quick results. Used extensively, however, this style can overwhelm team members and squelch innovation.
2) The authoritative leader mobilizes the team toward a common vision and focuses on end goals, leaving the means up to each individual. If this style were summed up in one phrase, it would be “Come with me.” The authoritative style works best when the team needs a new vision because circumstances have changed, or when explicit guidance is not required. Authoritative leaders inspire an entrepreneurial spirit and vibrant enthusiasm for the mission. It is not the best fit when the leader is working with a team of experts who know more than him or her.
3) The affiliative leader works to create emotional bonds that bring a feeling of bonding and belonging to the organization. If this style were summed up in one phrase, it would be “People come first.” The affiliative style works best in times of stress, when teammates need to heal from a trauma, or when the team needs to rebuild trust. This style should not be used exclusively, because a sole reliance on praise and nurturing can foster mediocre performance and a lack of direction.
4) The coaching leader develops people for the future. If this style were summed up in one phrase, it would be “Try this.” The coaching style works best when the leader wants to help teammates build lasting personal strengths that make them more successful overall. It is least effective when teammates are defiant and unwilling to change or learn, or if the leader lacks proficiency.
5) The coercive leader demands immediate compliance. If this style were summed up in one phrase, it would be “Do what I tell you.” The coercive style is most effective in times of crisis, such as in a company turnaround or a takeover attempt, or during an actual emergency like a tornado or a fire. This style can also help control a problem teammate when everything else has failed. However, it should be avoided in almost every other case because it can alienate people and stifle flexibility and inventiveness.
6) The democratic leader builds consensus through participation. If this style were summed up in one phrase, it would be “What do you think?” The democratic style is most effective when the leader needs the team to buy into or have ownership of a decision, plan, or goal, or if he or she is uncertain and needs fresh ideas from qualified teammates. It is not the best choice in an emergency situation, when time is of the essence for another reason or when teammates are not informed enough to offer sufficient guidance to the leader.
Daniel Goleman, Richard Boyatzis and Annie McKee, in Primal Leadership, describe six styles of leading that have different effects on the emotions of the target followers.
These are styles, not types. Any leader can use any style, and a good mix that is customised to the situation is generally the most effective approach.
The Visionary Leader
The Visionary Leader moves people towards a shared vision, telling them where to go but not how to get there – thus motivating them to struggle forwards. They openly share information, hence giving knowledge power to others.
They can fail when trying to motivate more experienced experts or peers.
This style is best when a new direction is needed.
Overall, it has a very strong impact on the climate.
The Coaching Leader
The Coaching Leader connects wants to organizational goals, holding long conversations that reach beyond the workplace, helping people find strengths and weaknesses and tying these to career aspirations and actions. They are good at delegating challenging assignments, demonstrating faith that demands justification and which leads to high levels of loyalty.
Done badly, this style looks like micromanaging.
It is best used when individuals need to build long-term capabilities.
It has a highly positive impact on the climate.
The Affiliative Leader
The Affiliative Leader creates people connections and thus harmony within the organization. It is a very collaborative style which focuses on emotional needs over work needs.
When done badly, it avoids emotionally distressing situations such as negative feedback. Done well, it is often used alongside visionary leadership.
It is best used for healing rifts and getting through stressful situations.
It has a positive impact on climate.
The Democratic Leader
The Democratic Leader acts to value inputs and commitment via participation, listening to both the bad and the good news.
When done badly, it looks like lots of listening but very little effective action.
It is best used to gain buy-in or when simple inputs are needed ( when you are uncertain).
It has a positive impact on climate.
The Pace-setting Leader
The Pace-setting Leader builds challenge and exciting goals for people, expecting excellence and often exemplifying it themselves. They identify poor performers and demand more of them. If necessary, they will roll up their sleeves and rescue the situation themselves.
They tend to be low on guidance, expecting people to know what to do. They get short term results but over the long term this style can lead to exhaustion and decline.
Done badly, it lacks Emotional Intelligence, especially self-management. A classic problem happens when the ‘star techie’ gets promoted.
It is best used for results from a motivated and competent team.
It often has a very negative effect on climate (because it is often poorly done).
The Commanding Leader
The Commanding Leader soothes fears and gives clear directions by his or her powerful stance, commanding and expecting full compliance (agreement is not needed). They need emotional self-control for success and can seem cold and distant.
This approach is best in times of crisis when you need unquestioned rapid action and with problem employees who do not respond to other methods.
The difference between leadership and management is that leaders are the ones that come up with goals and ideas for the organization. Managers are the ones whose task is to implement these goals and ideas.
Leaders are often innovators, designers, and creators. Managers are often like a mechanic. Their job is to make sure the machine of operations is running smoothly and efficiently .
Leaders are given the task to come up with the vision and values for the company they create. They are also the ones to make sure everyone follows the company’s vision and values, including managers and other employees. While manager’s do not create mission or value statements, it is incumbent upon them to make sure everyone in the organization is following them daily.
Questions to Consider for Review from the Book
Please write your answer in plain text, as clear as possible.
1) Write about 3 different leadership styles and describe each briefly.
2) What is the difference between Leadership and Management?
3) When is it appropriate to use Coercive style leadership?
a) When the company needs to make sales deadlines
b) When the company is making huge profits
c) When more discipline is required from employees
d) During times of crisis